Care response
around the country

How are other cities and regions addressing the need for non-police crisis response?


Who responds?: Mental health professionals, medics, and trained civilian crisis responders
How do they receive a call?: City 911 system routes appropriate calls to CAHOOTS as they would to other first responders such as police or EMTs
What happens?: Community members receive immediate, non-police assistance with emergency situations involving mental health, substance abuse, and homelessness
Who pays for it?: The CAHOOTS program is part of the public safety budget of the city alongside other policing and first response programming
How does it help the city?: This saves the city of Eugene an estimated $8.5 million annually in public safety costs plus an additional $14 million in ambulance trips and emergency response costs

Read more at:

STAR: Denver, CO

Who responds?: Mental healthcare professionals, alone or accompanied by police
How do they receive a call?: City 911 dispatch routes appropriate calls to STAR alone, or STAR + a police presence, or just Denver PD
What happens?: Calls centered in mental health and houselessness are responded to without a police presence and with resources to access further health or housing assistance
Who pays for it?: The pilot was established by the Caring for Denver Foundation; a dedicated stream of public funding was approved by voters following a 2018 ballot measure
How does it help the city?: In its first six months (the first half of 2021), STAR responded to 700+ calls without police presence, and did not later request police presence to any of those calls

Read more at:

CCD: Houston, TX

Who responds?: Incoming calls regarding mental health are routed to telehealth providers located within city dispatch
How do they receive a call?: City 911 dispatch routes mental health calls to the CCD team
What happens?: Telehealth mental and behavioral health specialists perform mental health assessments, create suicide and violence safety plans, and refer clients to social services as needed
Who pays for it?: The CCD program is internal to existing services and paid for through city public safety spending. 
How does it help the city?: The CCD program processed over 7,000 calls in a year and diverted nearly 30 percent of them from a police patrol response. This saved Houston an estimated $860,218 annually in public safety costs

Read more at:

Portland Street Response: Portland, OR

Who responds?: PSR teams consist of a firefighter or EMT, a licensed mental health crisis therapist, and two community health workers.

How do they receive a call?: Central dispatch for the city of Portland reroutes appropriate calls to the PSR team.

What happens?: PSR is equipped to respond to a variety of non-violent mental and behavioral health calls, including connecting the caller to aftercare and continued services.

Who pays for it?: PSR receives some funding from the city public safety budget, the same as the police or EMTs that they work with.

How does it help the city?: PSR responds to a majority of calls in a district where 911 calls were outpacing the rest of the geographical area served by PPD. 

Read more at:

What crisis response services exist in northeast Ohio?


The Cleveland Division of Police works with the ADAMHS Board of Cuyahoga County to provide Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training to interested police force members. There are currently fewer than 100 CIT officers on the street.


Pilots exist in the City of Cleveland and first ring suburb Shaker Heights that engage social workers with patrol cars responding to certain types of calls.


No non-police alternatives yet exist in northeast Ohio, so there is no way to access crisis care without interacting with the police. We are working hard to help elected officials and organizational stakeholders understand the importance of a non-police alternative. 

Who else is creating care response alternatives right now? 

Dayton OH

Columbus OH

Buffalo NY

Rochester NY

St. Paul MN

Detroit MI

Albuquerque NM

Phoenix AZ